STEPs - Smalltalk enhancement proposals

STEPs are the collaborative space behind the ANSI Smalltalk effort.

See also:

This page is a work-in-progress.

The standards work will primarily take the form of STEPs (Smalltalk Enhancement Proposals). The current STEP process is defined in STEP 1. This page hosts the STEP catalogue.

Prior to the introduction of the STEP process, work had started on ANSI Smalltalk-98 Errata (John O'Keefe). We should also work on extensions to the least common denominator that Smalltalk-98 provides. Also, there is a list of areas which it was felt were in need of attention but for which nobody has yet stepped forward to work upon; see the todo list.

The STEP specification and workflow


We present the structure for STEPs (Smalltalk Enhancement Proposal), design documents providing information about the Smalltalk language, library or environment, or describing a new feature. STEPs are meant to drive discussion of features in the Smalltalk community, and are intended to be the primary mechanisms for proposing new features to the community as well as to a standards body.

This document specifies the structure and workflow of a STEP, and documents the properties that will make sure that a STEP is easily implementable on a wide range of dialects.


STEP stands for Smalltalk Enhancement Proposal. A STEP is a design document providing information about the Smalltalk language, library or environment, or describing a new feature. The STEP is meant to be an initial point for discussion in the Smalltalk community, and at the same time should be reasonably developed at the time it is made public, so as to provide rationale for the feature and for debatable details.

We intend STEPs to be the primary mechanisms for proposing new features to the community as well as to a standards body, which may base its decisions on STEPs after the community has given its input on the issue and reached consensus. The finalized STEP will document dissenting opinions adequately, so as to preserve the rationale for design decisions after they have entered the Smalltalk standard.

Ideally, each STEP would represent a new idea for Smalltalk---therefore, the ideal STEP would be focused on a single key proposal. It is expected that the community will not focus its attention to STEPs that appear too broad.

Bugfixes in general do not need a STEP and are better submitted to a particular dialect's issue tracking system. However, ascertained bugs in the ANSI specification, requests for harmonization of a feature across different dialects, and similar issues can be discussed via a STEP.

Special-purpose STEPs (referred from now on as "meta-STEPs") can also propose procedures, guidelines, or changes to the decision-making process surrounding STEPs themselves.

The life of a STEP

A STEP officially starts its life when a first draft is published (using the "Add child page" link on the STEP main page) and announced on the STEP mailing list.

Even in its first revision, a STEP should already include the following metadata:

Discussion on the STEP starts immediately; however, if no editor is mentioned in the STEP, it formally enters "Under discussion" state only after someone steps up as the editor of the STEP. The editor's duty is to follow the discussion and ascertain when consensus on acceptance or rejection of the proposal is reached. Since the editor acts as an impartial referee on the progress of the STEP, it is suggested that the editor is *not* chosen among people already familiar with the STEP.

If no editor steps up within one month of the presentation of the STEP, the STEP moves to the "Suspended" state. If no editor steps up within two months, the community is understood to declare lack of interest for the STEP and the proposal is "Rejected". The author is responsible for following these phases while there is no appointed editor.

Once the editor is appointed, any change in the STEP state is made by the editor. Therefore, the editor also has the duty of keeping in contact with the author to understand whether progress has been made on the comments raised by the community, and suspending/withdrawing the STEP if this is not the case after a reasonable amount of time.

Finally, after the STEP has been accepted, the editor may propose that it enters an official standardization process. This is the only step that requires a formal voting process. The exact details for the voting process, including the quorum, shall be decided during discussion of this proposal, or otherwise left for a future meta-STEP.

The following diagram summarizes the life of a STEP:

All STEPS are licensed under the same license [to be defined].

STEPs are maintained in a versioned repository, and their revision history is the historical record of the feature proposal.

Exceptional events

It occasionally becomes necessary to transfer the role of author or editor of a STEP to a different person. In general, we would like to retain the original author as a co-author of the transferred STEP, but that is really up to the original author. A good reason to transfer ownership is because the original author no longer has the time or interest in updating it or following through with the STEP process, or is unreachable or not responding to email. A bad reason to transfer ownership is because you do not agree with the direction of the STEP. We try to build consensus around a STEP, but if that is not possible, you can always submit a competing STEP.

If you are interested in assuming ownership of a suspended STEP, send a message asking to take over, addressed to both the original author and the editor. If the original author will not respond to email in a reasonably timely manner, the editor may make a unilateral decision.


While discussion is supposed to take place before a proposal is accepted, the STEP remains a living document even after this milestone is reached.

In particular, it is important that the completed specification, reference implementation, and technology compatibility kit are updated in response to ongoing requests for clarification, interpretation, enhancements, and revisions. The author should review all proposed changes to the specification and indicate which ones can be carried out immediately and which should require the specification to be revised with a new STEP.

Challenges to one or more tests in a specification's technology compatibility kit are ultimately decided by the author if they cannot be otherwise resolved.

It is suggested to keep track of frequently raised issues and make the resolutions available from within the STEP itself. In addition, whenever the specification is updated, the author is responsible for reviewing the reference implementation and technology compatibility kit to determine what revisions (if any) are needed to keep them synchronized with the updated STEP.

Maintenance is especially important for STEPs that are going to enter the ANSI process. If the author is not part of the ANSI committee, it is probably best to relinquish the lead of the maintenance process to a member of the committee (possibly an expert identified in the STEP itself).

The road to a successful STEP

Even if the number of people involved in the STEP process will be relatively small, it is expected that in some cases the stakes will be important enough that there will inevitably be disagreement. Therefore, it is useful that the STEP guidelines describe not only the formal steps leading to acceptance of a proposal, but also summarize the contents of a successful proposal and the basic steps towards effective decision making.

This section should not be interpreted only as a strict policy; while it does include some normative content, it mostly consists of advice that will help minimizing these problems. Similar essays, representing the advice and opinion of their author, may be presented as meta-STEPs in the future.

What belongs in a successful STEP?

While not all STEPs may need all these parts, including the following information can be a good start towards community acceptance of a STEP, and towards fruitful discussion of a STEP even in its infancy:

We request the reference implementation to fulfill several requirements:

In addition, the following properties are desirable:

Successful discussion of a STEP

The STEP process will work best if decision are taken by building consensus.

It is expected that consensus will be reached naturally as a product of the discussion process. Furthermore, the relatively narrow focus and the public nature of the STEP process guarantee enough exposure that silence can be interpreted as consent. To guarantee the effectiveness of the process, a limited amount of "bureaucracy" (such as the appointment of the editor) shall provide a safety net against misinterpretation of the community's opinion.

When there are disagreements, they should be resolved through reasoning, cooperation, and if necessary, negotiation. To this end, it is important that members of the community:


This document is hereby placed in the public domain.

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Smalltalk Syntax per ANSI/INCITS 319 1998

Step #2
Title: Smalltalk Syntax per ANSI/INCITS 319 1998
Depends: Step 1 The STEP specification and workflow
Obsoletes: none


We present the syntax of the Smalltalk programming language as defined in ANSI/INCITS 319 1998 in order to provide a baseline for future STEPs which may propose changes to the syntax.

The Syntax is expressed in SDF (Syntax Definition Formalism).

Protocol extensions - Object

Author: Andres Valloud.

Experts: the community at large.

Prerequisites: 1

Supersedes: 1.

Editor: Andres Valloud.

Objective: to update the ANSI spec to contain idioms which are de-facto standards across all Smalltalk implementations.

The following methods are being considered for inclusion (although the outcome for each of them is still undecided).

Object>>become:, specifying it is the two-way become: variety and that it has to exchange identityHash bits.

Object>>ifNil:, ifNotNil:, etc, and their UndefinedObject counterparts.

Object>>instVarAt: and instVarAt:put:.

Object>>performMessage: aMessage, as an addition to perform: aSelector (with a number of arguments).

Object>>mustBeBoolean, the message sent by some VMs when they expect to see a boolean (e.g.: for sending ifTrue:ifFalse:) and they do not.

Protocol extensions - Collection

Author: Andres Valloud.

Experts: the community at large.

Prerequisites: 1

Supersedes: 1.

Editor: Andres Valloud.

Objective: to update the ANSI spec to contain idioms which are de-facto standards across all Smalltalk implementations.

The following methods are being considered for inclusion (although the outcome for each of them is still undecided).

Protocol extensions - SequenceableCollection

Author: Andres Valloud.

Experts: the community at large.

Prerequisites: 1

Supersedes: 1.

Editor: Andres Valloud.

Objective: to update the ANSI spec to contain idioms which are de-facto standards across all Smalltalk implementations.

The following methods are being considered for inclusion (although the outcome for each of them is still undecided).


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Introducing a common <Iterable> protocol for collections and readable streams

(still empty)

Syntax extensions and corrections - non-literal Array creation

(still empty)

Syntax extensions and corrections - binding references

(not empty)

Syntax extensions and corrections - ByteArray literals

(still empty)

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    Syntax extensions and corrections - code-point Character literals

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    Smalltalk ANSI/INCITS 319 1998 Errata

    Step #12
    Title: Smalltalk ANSI/INCITS 319 1998 Errata
    Depends: Step 1 The STEP specification and workflow
    Obsoletes: none


    In the 10 years since ANSI/INCITS 319 1998 was published, many small errors and inconsistencies have been discovered in the standard. This step provides the vehicle to capture, discuss, and agree on the errata items.

    The actual errata information can be found in ANSI Smalltalk-98 Errata and its children.